jueves, 19 de febrero de 2015

Juan Rulfo AND DISAPPEARED IN MEXICO.
  
 - "I killed the murmurs" .Why?

A politician kidnapped or disappeared in Mexico is the closest thing to a character in Pedro Páramo, where the presidents were everything Or are, remain ?. Even the good and the bad. The leaves of a tree did not move, if there was no previous presidential order. However, they deny it. José López Portillo told his 81 years: "I always acted far as I could, but with righteousness."

In Comala as in Mexico, no other power than that of the patriarch: "we are all children of Pedro Páramo" We are all children of Porfirio Diaz and Lopez Portillo? The parodoja of this paternity without brake is leading to drought. As the chief seizes more land and more women, the region becomes a wasteland. Nothing escapes the actions of the chief, even the desert represents a balance of his will. Pedro Paramo is the artificer of dust; the "father of all" live among dead women, who dream of giving birth to a shell. Land planted with ghosts, Comala is a wasteland. Pedro Paramo is a corpse that breeds postponed.

In Mexico, the dead enforced disappearance acquire full autonomy and police agent dissipates from their shadows, as in Comala. It is no wonder then, a plethora of single words, spoken by untraceable or missing people. In this tissue independent sentences, a cry through the night: "ay life, do not deserve me!" or someone sings: "My girlfriend gave me a handkerchief / with banks to mourn ...". Who is this? "Noises. Voces. Rumors" says the jailer. When I Preciado "dies" and becomes another herald without a body, of the 275 disappeared during the "dirty war" documented in the Mexican political system breaks its last bond with the outside world: Comala Is Mexico? is already a separate space from its surroundings; far, far away, are Los Confines. He speaks of Pedro Páramo has led to questionable anthropological acclaim red note. Ensures that makes the narrator Rulfo a skilled stenographer colloquial language and politically correct missionary who gives voice to the voiceless, especially if they are dead or disappeared without leaving court record.

Comala as any dungeon prisons in Mexico has used his own to such heat that those who go to hell return for his blanket. Only memories of women deprived of their freedom blowing a wind smelling of lemons. In this wilderness, exhausted place, the outbreak of a leaf or the mention of water to achieve a chilling effect, especially for those who have lived the experience in "the little well" enough. In Comala, like the hijacked suffering the pigpen in captivity, a mouth is satisfied if they give "something for something".

No disappeared peasant spoke like character Rulfo, but few dialogues seem so "real" as those of Pedro Páramo. This illusion of naturalness depends on many resources from the hostile environment that agency sequestered, to enrich their imagination and language: "if consent to me," until you reach that poetry error: "you who have ears boys" , tautologies almost metaphysical: "This proves what shows you" or "If I heard only silence was because he was not yet used to the silence". After spending "I apandado" bread and water three months. Or simply address the rapid theater of the absurd: -¡Váyase much to hell! The withered leaves fall schedule every day as if they were long years and not milliseconds in ignored by Fox, history of Mexico. On the ground, dead leaves mingle with the broken promises of President scattered for twelve months. Time has gone faster than fifteen minutes of Vicente Fox.


Comala Is Mexico? Dangerously has become a nation of waste: souls without bodies, leaves treeless names without faces. The latter is crucial to thin the atmosphere: Damiana Cisneros, Hedwig Dyada, Fulgor Sedano, Toribio Aldrete contribute to the feeling of suffocation: the people no one is overpopulated. Juan Rulfo, poor gasket words like pebbles reaching unusual eloquence. "Occasionally heard the sound of words, and I noticed the difference because the words he had heard until then, until then I knew, had no sound, no sounded, felt, but without sound, like you hear in dreams ". Phrases tail biting and form rings of dust, "playing with the air giving the leaves glitter with playing the air."

sábado, 7 de febrero de 2015

REFORMA ELECTORAL: ¿AVANCE O RETROCESO?

MARIO HERNANDEZ SOLORIO

Es el primer cuestionamiento que nos asalta cuando hablamos de la reforma electoral ¿Avance o retroceso? Si tiene las herramientas jurídicas y políticas suficientes y adecuadas para llamarla: “Reforma electoral” o, en realidad fue un ejercicio simulador que solo sirve para diluir los contenidos y significados constitucionales en la ley secundaria de la materia [ Ley General de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales] y que a su vez, favorece para  deslegitimar los contenidos constitucionales  en los titulares de los nuevos órganos constitucionales autónomos [ Coneval, INE, Fiscalía General de la República] previstos en la reforma política- electoral como una consecuencia del reparto de cuotas entre los partidos mayoritarios, que reproducirán los intereses, poder  e ideologías de las fuerzas políticas y económicas dominantes hoy en México.

El proceso electoral federal 2014- 2015 será el próximo siete de Junio del presente año dos mil quince, se van a elegir 500 diputados al Congreso de la Unión: 300 de los cuales serán electos por mayoría simple en cada uno de los distritos electorales en que se divide el país; y los 200 restantes mediante el principio de representación proporcional al ser votados en listas en cada una de las cinco circunscripciones electorales que integran al país. Constituirán a partir del 1 de septiembre de 2015, la LXIII Legislatura del Congreso de la Unión de México. Por tanto, ¿qué sabemos de la próxima elección? Y ¿que sabemos de la reforma política que regirá cada uno de las acciones políticas del Instituto Nacional Electoral, y de los partidos políticos de México? ¿Será un ejercicio que debe a culminar con el voto en las urnas o la abstención de la ciudadanía electoral?.Si no fuera así, por el tamaño de la crisis en todo el territorio que lastima al país, todo parece hace indicar que las elecciones pueden terminar en indeseables revueltas callejeras como consecuencia de una transición democrática en estado de postración avanzada.

Se habla de la crisis en que vive inmerso el país, pero no se habla que el desconocimiento del entramado electoral por parte de la ciudadanía electora y hasta de los propios partidos políticos que en los hechos contribuye a incrementar esa crisis, en donde se elige a gobernantes y representantes populares incapaces, deshonestos y codiciosos que solo buscan el beneficio personal o de grupo y la impunidad para enriquecerse bajo la sombra protectora del fuero, a costa del erario sin el menor escrúpulo y como remate, la falta de garantías para el ejercicio de un derecho político – electoral.

Un botón de muestra: “Todas las autoridades, en el ámbito de su competencia, tienen la obligación de promover, respetar, proteger y garantizar los derechos humanos […]” En consecuencia el Estado garantiza el ejercicio de un derecho humano de “conformidad con los principios de universalidad, interdependencia, indivisibilidad y progresividad.” (Art. 1 Carta Magna).

Eso es en la Constitución, sin embargo en los hechos y en la práctica ese ejercicio de un derecho no se encuentra garantizado desde el momento en que las acciones que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional Electoral [INE] en el arranque de las actividades tendientes al desarrollo y organización del proceso electoral federal  2014- 2015, lo hace en base a leyes abrogadas que como ustedes saben, es una práctica ilegal  al aplicar hoy en día el Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales, normatividad que no tiene fuerza legal alguna desde el veintitrés de mayo de dos mil catorce, cuando se publicó en el Diario Oficial de la Federación el Decreto por el que se expide la Ley General de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales. En dónde, cuándo, cómo se está aplicando el Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales, se preguntará con justa razón.

Desde el mes de enero del año en curso ( 2015 ) en todos los consejos distritales en que se divide el país y que dependen del Instituto Nacional Electoral, en la apertura del proceso electoral 2014- 2015, al someter para su aprobación por los partidos políticos el acuerdo por el que se designan a los ciudadanos que se desempeñaran como SUPERVISORES ELECTORALES. En este lance ilegal, se está aplicando una legislación ABROGADA que estuvo vigente el treinta de noviembre de mil novecientos noventa y nueve, fecha en la que el Consejo General del entonces denominado Instituto Federal Electoral [I.F.E] aprobó el acuerdo mediante el cual se concentró en UN SOLO FUNCIONARIO los trabajos que realiza el CAPACITADOR ELECTORAL y el asistente electoral para la integración de las mesas directivas de casilla y las actividades de asistencia durante las etapas de preparación y desarrollo de la Jornada Electoral, así como de resultados y declaración de validez de las elecciones.

Esta práctica ilegal y viciada es aceptada hoy en día por la mayoría de los partidos políticos en caso de no ser impugnada en tiempo y forma, cediendo terreno a la manipulación de la elección y al estado de indefensión del ciudadano elector para iniciar desde ahí, el empedrado camino de la derrota electoral.

¿Para qué aplicar una ley abrogada en el actual proceso electoral? ¿Para qué una reforma electoral que costó muchos millones al erario si no va a ser garante del ejercicio de un derecho político - electoral? ¿Para qué entonces se legisló, aprobó y publicó la Ley General de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales si no sirve para garantizar una elección legal?

Tantas interrogantes, generan como respuesta, la percepción que estamos frente a una reforma simuladora que NO incorpora la revocación de mandato (cuya propuesta es de un servidor), ni el referéndum, ni la acción popular de inconstitucionalidad, se mantienen por tanto,  los requisitos de 2012 que dificulta a los ciudadanos el derecho a la consulta y a la iniciativa legislativa ciudadana. No se acompaña la reforma constitucional electoral con leyes secundarias que regulen el derecho de réplica o la publicidad gubernamental. Más aún, se mantiene la connivencia entre los partidos políticos y la clase empresarial porque no se deroga el financiamiento privado. No es una reforma legítima al haber excluido a sectores sociales y políticos relevantes. En consecuencia, será el marco para nuevos conflictos pre-electorales y pos-electorales. Ante ese espectro, antes del canto de un gallo, estaremos discutiendo una nueva reforma político- electoral.

Criticas y opiniones en
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THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA VIEW FROM THE STOMACH AND LANGUAGE.

It all started with the arrival, use and trade in Europe stale spices. His enjoyment in gastronomy, caused an unprecedented impact on the lives of the ancient peninsular of what is now Italy, Spain and Portugal, to the extent that enjoy and trade them fully became an obsession of the kings of Spain, but unaware of the origins of those aromatic spices, whose crops and mass provisioning in those days came from a far country: India.

Obtain was the product of a great adventure, because you know exactly where India, China, Cochin, or so-called Island of Spices (The Moluccas) was. It seemed only a challenge for someone of Polendos the navigator Christopher Columbus who funded by the Spanish Crown and the bankers of Genoa, decided to undertake this journey, culminating un October 12, 1492 with the discovery of the New World.

 In his journal of the Discovery, the Admiral wrote that he could not strain your eyes to see so much prettiness in those beaches. Columbus believed that Haiti was Japan and that Cuba was China and the continent's inhabitants were Indians from India.

 The black pepper, originating in India and long considered the world's most important spice, black pepper is used in the kitchen for more than 3,000 years ago. The term usually spice to the hard parts, such as seeds and barks, herbs native to tropical regions of Asia and the Moluccas in Indonesia, also called Spice Islands apply.

  The paradox is that those oils had evolved in nature and animal repellents toxins; Mint leaves and bark of the cinnamon (cinnamon), emerged as protection against herbivores and bark borers. Spices also be used to preserve and enhance the flavor of food, medicinal herb have been and sometimes, magic and witchcraft.

  The spice trade with the East emerged long before the Christian era. The huge attributed to spices, value detonated the economic boom in the Near East, fincado in the lucrative trade in cinnamon, and pepper sen. For many centuries, Arab traders controlled the overland trade routes with India.

 When the sea lanes were opened, the Egyptian city of Alexandria, held in Rome, became commercial emporium. Between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, Venice monopolized the spice trade with the Near East; demanding high prices that Portugal and Spain began to look to the East and to seek a route to the Spice Islands around the Cape of Good Hope.

They experienced sailors as Christopher Columbus, turned their attention to the West. Although many early explorers departed in search of gold, the spice trade was the true essential financial support for their expeditions.

Today, herbs and spices are easy to acquire, because thanks to the evolution of communications, oriental spices are grown in other parts of the world. Thus, the desired nail Tidore Ferdinand Magellan led Spain in the only surviving ship of issue, is now grown on the islands of Zanzibar and Madagascar.

Ginger, previously found only in China, is also planted in Jamaica and Nigeria. The native to the Moluccas, nutmeg grows today on the island of Granada. And the Chili Pepper, CHile known worldwide as one of the few spices found in the New World, is now cultivated in countries as distant and far away as Kenya, Pakistan, and of course in Mexico.

The variety of aromas that give off the herbs and spices are produced in almost all parts of plants, from the leaves to the roots of Basil, Rosemary, sage, savory, and thyme are perennials small size but big fragrance in its leaves. The laurel, is used to flavor stews, sauces and vinegars.

The anise, chili, coriander seeds, mustard seeds, nutmeg, pepper sauce and sesame seeds or poppy and sesame, are obtained from ripe fruit or seeds. Anise beans, whole used to flavor baked goods and essential oil form in sweet and the absinthe and anise liquor.

Sesame seeds or sesame and were ground into flour in ancient Egypt and used in China 5,000 years ago. Derived from the root garlic, which in some places is considered a spice and ginger. Garlic comes from Central Asia and from the botanical point of view, has family roots with onion; is a spice used since ancient times.

  Christopher Columbus would never come to the Isle of Spice. In the end, the one mistake Genoese, repaid to the financiers of his expeditions and trips by far in his diary he set the word gold and prophesied: You will have all the business in them Christianity.

The Conquest of Mexico is living proof of that. A clash of two different worlds, where the continental conquistador Hernán Cortés, found much more than gold and silver they sought. Important treasures such as Cocoa, so valuable to the Aztecs who became a unit of exchange, Chocolate, chicle, the Snuff, Sugarcane, Chile, wild animals who later were domesticated as turkey, (that would be the day Thanksgiving without turkey Mexico, a respectable tradition) all industrialization, commercialization and global fame, medicinal herbs, the basis of modern industrial chemical medicine, which transformed into a commodity, with the passage of time have increased their importance and its value in the modern world.

 So the conquest of what is now the Mexican nation and the rest of the New World began. But until today, globalization of species not originally their countries benefited producers, as evidenced by the fact that oregano and thyme, are shipped in bales to London and New York, the two main centers spice trade for processing and distribution throughout the world.

 Saffron is of the few spices that are still not available to everyone, is the most expensive of all, used to color and flavor to certain dishes of Mediterranean and Oriental cuisine, are grown in Spain, Italy and the near East. Vanilla is another example, because for processing, now a much cheaper synthetic vanilla is obtained by hydrolysis of wood.  

Thus, the origin of the discovery of the new world has much to do with the pleasures of the table, stomach and a black pebble called PEPPER.

   

jueves, 15 de enero de 2015

                              PERENNIAL LOOTING.


Do you think we have legislators at the height of the current situation of Mexico think? Do you defending national heritage Think? Do you think we are so politicized enough to give us better governments think? Do you think we read enough to understand what happens in the country think? Do you think the policy be the task of a few?

In Mexico after the war of independence ensued a historic disaster: Texas became a US territory after a crude maneuver rather than cutting policy vandal who tried to legitimize a false desire for autonomy in 1845.

Our friends were upset because Mexicans are resigned to losing Texas and in 1846 we declared war, and this led to the first major agandalle (they are about to consummate the second thanks to national traitors) to steal two half million square kilometers including what is today the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, nevada, Utah and parts of Wyoming.

Immediately after the robbery began the extermination of every culture that smacked of Mexico to impose the culture of the nascent American union and so acculturation has not stopped one second until today.

Simultaneously began in Mexico looting from libraries and convents. Manuscripts, codices, painted books and illuminated manuscripts, incunabula, rested on their shelves of mahogany, cedar, walnut, Marbled tropical timber dream was fulfilled Helleum Librarum, of devouring books.

There was no way to stop the looting. At one point, someone had a bright idea: transport all library books looted to university in Mexico City to build the National Library (something like Vasconcelos National Library foxiana) but then as now, the books never came to your destination, even recently, in the year of 1986 was auctioned in New York on "-Spanish Nahualt Vocabulary" Molina in $ 300,000 and this book came from the stolen books in Mexico.

According to experts the amount of plunder (only important books) exceeds the amount of the debt. Agustín Fischer, consultant Maximiliano, managed to get the best from the past editions found in Mexico and in 1868 sold some copies in Paris and in 1869 in London.

The British Museum participated unscrupulous purchases of these books from the looting of Mexico. The bibliophile Herbert Howe Bancroft, a publicist who loved history, before dying sold its 40,000 books, mostly stolen from Mexico, the University of California and that you can consult if you want to know something unknown about Mexico and Latin America, except for their Bibliographic references.

If you want to thoroughly investigate the pre-Hispanic Mexico, the really soaked volumes are written by researchers and American anthropologists and European classics of course. Adolph Sutro mogul, between 1885 and 1889 acquired thirty-five thousand Latin forms that led the United States so badly (that paradox) that the San Francisco earthquake wiped out half of that immense library because Hence unique copies of the independence of Mexico, the Constitution of Cadiz and the First Empire were lost.

The magnificent library called "Prince of the Mexican scholarship" Menéndez y Pelayo and huge library of wise Joaquín García Izcalbalceta after it was confiscated by the Revolution where do you think ended up? Austin Texas. A stone's throw from the ranch owned more illiterate who has ruled the world.

See the book as a commodity isolated on a shelf in bookstores, is to have no vision of what the country needs. The book should be seen as integral to say a whole. Even if you see along the shelf of vegetables in a market, the better.

The book for children and young Mexicans should be part of the staple diet. It is certainly an eminently edible product for the rickety our population. So the people are hungry. But the rulers forget that "NOT LIVE ON BREAD ALONE MAN". Had visionary candidates, give away books within pantries throwing the starving masses can not hear his absurd speeches, only serve "the spot".

That requires a country of tragedies like Mexico .- "no mothers, if I am not fool once said an angry political .---" give facilities to the people reading books is as provide them with X "rays, - and then topped .--- "to you I wish you could see the tail at any time on the street?".

Of course! Lawmakers only make laws that tell them to do, generally repressive laws and submissive. Myopia of legislators comes home, ie they know (they are always embarrassing children of a character) that are actually NOT true popular representatives in the highest assembly of the country and this is reflected in its "legislative work".

The former rector of UNAM, Dr. De la Fuente to describe the political agenda of the country called "Actors circus ... Clowns, acrobats, magicians and trainers" who have turned the country into a scene of three tracks.


For now, no one could if any profiled better.

martes, 13 de enero de 2015

 VERACRUZ  FACE TO FACE WITH JAPAN

Japan's main island, Honshu, has 230,500 square kilometers and is three times larger in territorial proportions to the State of Veracruz in Mexico, which has 71 826 square kilometers, although different climate and soil quality and life of its inhabitants. In Honshu 100 million people live about high standard of living, ie all Mexico could live in Honshu, in Veracruz meanwhile, live an average of 8 million native and a million has been exported in the last 20 years as hand cheap labor to the United States. True, we lack tools to describe the shackles that we carry, to recognize, responsible for ourselves and find key releasing the true potential of what we really are as a people. From what we can not do or be due to indecision. Through that barrier that we refuse to break after five hundred years of that clash of cultures.

Since someone invented that ours is an eternally secondary in government budgets defeated, distant, spectral, unproductive culture has become failed communication tool and mirror ID to fully exercise hereditary rights of the marvelous ancient and enroll once all at the head of Mexico and the global community of nations. A sufficient sample button: Veracruz off Japan.

The similarities and differences that may exist between Veracruz and Japan are quibbles for such items fincar in economic and financial potential of their territory, although there could take advantage, because while the islands of Japan are the tops of chain of mountains which originally formed part of the Asian continent. His real territory, practically the main island, Honshu, with an elongated shape with a maximum width of 322km; situation that places the farthest sea just 161km point.

Our state instead romps along the Gulf of Mexico, in a coastline of 745 kilometers long, consisting of high mountains, mountain forests, cloud forests, rain forests, fertile plains, rivers, waterfalls, lakes and coasts. With an area of 72.826 square kilometers, Veracruz could be part of a strong economic region, for its great cultural diversity; borders seven states of Mexico: Tamaulipas to the north; San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo and Puebla west; Chiapas and Oaxaca to the south and southeast Tabasco. Share the basin of the Gulf of Mexico in the states of Tamaulipas, Tabasco, Campeche, Quintana Roo and Yucatan and five states in the United States. These economies represent a potential 50 million people market.

Japan, meanwhile, has to deal with a lot of accidents on the Pacific coast, is the result of the erosive action of the tides and strong coastal storms. The west coast of Kyushu, in the East China Sea, is the most irregular sector the Japanese coast. Because of the alternating sequence of mountain and valley since most soil is rocky, it is estimated that only 11% of Japan's land is arable, but has abundant waterways, no large navigable rivers. The longest river in Japan is the Shinano, on Honshu, with 370km. The largest lake covers about 685km2, is Biwa, on Honshu. The mountains of Japan are the most striking feature of its topography. The highest peak, with 3.776m, is the Fuji Yama, an extinct volcano located near Yokohama, exceptionally beautiful for being unique height and shape. The volcanoes are quite common; known about 200, of which about 50 are active. Almost two thirds of the total area of Japan are covered with forest, of which 40% are softwood. Although Japan has a leading position in the global timber production, the sudden increase in domestic demand for timber forces the country to import most of its consumption. The annual timber harvest was 37.6 million m3 in the early 1990s.

Eighty percent of the territory of Veracruz has warm weather, wet and humid sub, which becomes cooler in the plains and mountains, reaching freezing temperatures in the highlands. As exceptional we have a powerful and fantastic water world because 35% of Mexico's surface waters traverse the territory of Veracruz. Astronauts identify us easily from their space missions when circle the Earth, precisely because a dense cluster of streamers cabrillean from its 41 rivers covering a length of 1,118 kilometers that make up 14 watersheds among which are those of the river Panuco, Tuxpan , Cazones, Nautla, Jamapa, Papaloapan and Coatzacoalcos. The most important is to Chicayán dam, located in the town of Panuco, in the northern state with a capacity of 340 million cubic meters. The lagoons of the entity are of great beauty and natural wealth. Among the most important are: Tamiahua, which is the largest in the state, with an area of 2,112 square kilometers; Mandinga, in the center; and Catemaco, approximately 108 square kilometers in the south.

The main railway lines in Japan were nationalized in 1907; In the early 1990s Japan was about 27.450km of roads, of which about 55% were electrified. In 1970 the construction of a new network of high-speed railway began, with a length of 7,000km aimed at uniting the major cities. Veracruz plays an important role in the history of Mexican railroad since General Anastasio Bustamante in August 1837, as President of the Republic, gave Francisco de Arrillaga, wealthy businessman based in the port of Veracruz, exclusive privilege to build and establish a railroad from Veracruz to Mexico City. Today nothing remains, because Mexico denationalized their rail networks at the beginning of the XXI century.

Japan has 1.120.460km of roads, of which 67% are paved. Since 1990 has 40 million vehicles to 21.1 million cars and commercial vehicles. Japan is one of the leading countries of the world merchant fleet, with more than 7,400 vessels, which together accounted for a total of 24 million tonnes tare. The company Japan Air Lines, established in 1951, offers services from Tokyo to Europe, USA, Canada, Mexico, the Middle East and Southeast countries. The state of Veracruz has no local airlines, only has an international airport located in the city of Veracruz, and two airports for domestic flights, El Tajin located between Poza Rica and Tuxpan, and Canticas in Minatitlan. The local movement is supported by about 15 regional airports and nationwide today's leading airline passengers "Mexicana" is in bankruptcy and no flies from a year ago.

Veracruz has a highway system just over 19 thousand kilometers, representing 5.1% of the national total, of which 5400 kilometers are paved roads and 539 kilometers to the road network of high specifications. Two main routes cross the state from north to south: the coastal axis, which starts at Pueblo Viejo and ends in Tonala, and Veracruz backbone, which connects to the entity in the western part, from Panuco to Jesus Carranza. The interstate communication is done through ten transverse axes. The Veracruz-Xalapa-Veracruz-Acatzingo and Córdoba-Maltrata axes communicate both the center of the state with the cities of Mexico and Puebla

Japan in 1990, about 124 daily newspapers are published; their combined circulation exceeds 72 million. However in Veracruz not exceed 10 the number of major newspapers around the state and the printing and circulation checked all of them does not exceed 400,000 copies a day for a population of around 8 million. Japanese newspapers have one of the largest total runs the world. The newspaper with the highest circulation are Tokyo's Asahi Shimbun and the Yomiuri Shimbun. The basic telecommunications infrastructure in Veracruz is composed of more than 379,000 telephone lines. All urban centers of the state have telephone lines. In rural areas it serves the 57.8% of the towns and rural telephony satellite Pursuing the 20.1% of the communities. There are 15 television stations and 10 relay stations and 102 radio stations. Veracruz Broadcasting, Government newly established company expanded its facilities and modernized its equipment to carry their signals to all the territory of Veracruz. By early 1990, Japan had more than 56 million phones and about 97 million radios and 100 million television receivers were used.

After World War II, Japanese unions experienced an increase. In 1946, more than 12,000 trade unions had a total of 3.7 million members. In the late 1970s, the number had increased to 70,000. In the early 1990s had a membership of 12.5 million, which accounted for around 29% of the working population. In 1987 the main union federations agreed to join as the National Federation of Private Sector, known as Rengo. Because tourism ago, in 1990, more than 4 million foreigners visited Japan annually, while 12 million Japanese traveled outside their borders. Annual tourism revenues in Japan totaled 3,400 million, while expenditures of Japanese travelers exceeded 22,500 million.

Currently operating in our state eight ports, which are registered as height and cabotage ports, Tuxpan, Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos and Pajaritos: Tecolutla, Nautla, Alvarado and Tlacotalpan operating cabotage only and are dedicated to fishing and tourism. In 2005, the ports of Tuxpan, Veracruz and Coatzacoalcos operated 28.4% of coastal cargo and height of the country. The annual cargo volume stood at around 15.9 million tonnes. Veracruz, is the main commercial port in the country, starting the 21st century mobilizes more than 12.1 million tonnes, ie 21.6% of the national cargo movement. The port of Coatzacoalcos plays a strategic role in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. The port of Tuxpan has a regional industrial profile will be consolidated when the four-lane highway that is a project that takes nearly a decade communicates with the city of Mexico is concluded.

In recent decades, the Japanese economy has expanded rapidly. The industrial base of the country, which before was based on light industries, now lies in the heavy, chemical and electronic industries, which together constitute at least two thirds of the total value of annual exports. In 1994, gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan was 4.59 billion dollars, one of the largest in the world. The national budget for 1994 estimated revenues of $ 730,143,380,000 established and a figure similar expenses. Before and during World War II, the Japanese economy was controlled by a dozen wealthy families, called: zaibatsu ('rich cliques'). The most important were Mitsui, Iwasaki (Mitsubishi company), Sumitomo and Yasuda; they controlled the coal, iron, and aluminum pulp. In 1945 and 1946, the Allied authorities dissolved these industrial consortia, although businesses remained intact and increased the economic power to include other activities such as transport by sea, banking and other industries.

The agricultural population has declined in recent years, but the importance of agriculture has not diminished. Over 40% of the cultivated land is devoted to rice production, which, in the mid-1990s, accounted for about one third of total revenues produced by agricultural crops. Rice remains the basis of the Japanese diet. In the early 1990s, annual production in metric tons were rice (10.6 million), potatoes or potatoes (3.8 million), sugar beets (3.7 million), sugarcane (2, 2 million), radishes (2.5 million), mandarins (1.6 million), cabbage (1.6 million), sweet potatoes (1.3 million), Chinese cabbage (1.3 million), onions (1.3 million) and cucumbers (980,000). Melons, tomatoes, apples, wheat, soybeans, tea, snuff and other fruits and vegetables are also grown. Due to the scarcity of arable land and consequent value, little land is dedicated to feedlot cattle. However, in the early 1990s, Japan had 11 million heads of pigs, five million cattle and 336 million poultry. Arable land is divided into small farms and almost 70% of these lands consist of farms 1ha or less. Many farmers also work part-time in the industry. The land is tilled intensively; almost all farms have electricity and many use modern machinery. Japanese farmers get two or more crops in a year; although most of the soils are exhausted, the high use of chemical fertilizers, improved varieties and technical advances have made Japanese farms are among the most productive in the world.


The fish is second in importance in the Japanese diet, so that fish production is one of the most important, both for the internal market and outdoors. The Japanese fishing fleet is one of the largest in the world. Fishing can be divided into three main categories: coastal, inshore and offshore. The seaside is performed in medium size boats and get a substantial amount of the total catch, but only 25% of the value of total production. Deep sea fishing, performed with large vessels in international waters, gets a similar coastal fisheries catch while fishing inshore, small boats, nets or slightly modernized techniques, represents almost half of the total industrial production. In the early 1990s the annual catch reached 10 million tons, mainly sardines, bonito, crab, pike, shrimp, salmon, mackerel, squid, clams, sea bream, scallops and tuna among others. In addition, Japan is among the few remaining whaling countries and collect lots of seaweed and other marine plants.

Almost two thirds of the total area of Japan are covered with forest, of which 40% are softwood. Although Japan has a leading position in the global timber production, the sudden increase in domestic demand for timber forces the country to import most of its consumption. The annual timber harvest was 37.6 million m3 in the early 1990s The fish is second in importance in the Japanese diet, so that fish production is one of the most important, both for internal market and outdoors. The Japanese fishing fleet is one of the largest in the world. Fishing can be divided into three main categories: coastal, inshore and offshore. The seaside is performed in medium size boats and get a substantial amount of the total catch, but only 25% of the value of total production. Deep sea fishing, performed with large vessels in international waters, gets a similar coastal fisheries catch while fishing inshore, small boats, nets or slightly modernized techniques, represents almost half of the total industrial production. In the early 1990s the annual catch reached 10 million tons, mainly sardines, bonito, crab, pike, shrimp, salmon, mackerel, squid, clams, sea bream, scallops and tuna among others. In addition, Japan is among the few remaining whaling countries and collect lots of seaweed and other marine plants.

Veracruz stands out for its agriculture, forestry and fishing vocation, but also has industrial structure that places him as a national leader in basic petrochemicals, representing 80% of the national total, and power generation. Veracruz economy occupies the fifth place nationally. In 1998 the state's GDP was 148.5 billion pesos (US $ 16,243,000), representing a contribution of 4.2% to the national GDP. The GDP of Veracruz is, for example, 2.5 times larger than the GDP of Paraguay. 60.3% of GDP is generated in the service sector, followed in importance by the industrial and manufacturing sector with 30.3% and the primary sector generates 9.4%. This structure is similar to that of domestic production, although in Veracruz is greater the contribution of the primary sector. In 1998, the economically active population of the entity represented 40.6% of total population with 2.9 million people, of which 98.1% was occupied. 35.8% of the employed population was working at the primary sector, 34.2% in the secondary sector, 24.1% in services, 3.2% in communications and transportation, and 2.6% in government.

The mineral resources of Japan are varied but limited in quantity. Limestone is the most exploited rock. Other minerals such as coal, copper, lead, zinc and other rocks such as quartzite are also removed, but in insufficient quantities to meet domestic demand. Japanese industries were severely damaged in World War II. Then, the country undertook a reconstruction that resulted in the complete modernization of industrial plants, with emphasis on the chemical and petrochemical industries and heavy equipment industry. In the mid 1950s, industrial production had exceeded prewar levels; industrial growth reached 9.4% annually during the period between 1965 and 1980 and 6.7% per year during the period 1980 to 1988. In the mid 1990s, Japan was the country boatbuilder the world and was among the leading world producers of electrical and electronic products, steel and motor vehicles. Production of crude steel in the same period was about 109.7 million tons; and the production of pig iron, 80 million tons. The Japanese industry also produced 9.8 million cars, 7.6 million trucks and cranes, clocks 47.7 million, 28.2 million videos, 14.3 million color TV sets, 18 million 35mm cameras , 6.1 million microwave ovens, refrigerators 5.2 million, 4.3 million faxes, computers 2.6 million, 2.3 million copiers and many other electrical and electronic equipment for home and for work . Thanks to the strength of the yen, Japanese companies have invested increasingly in industrial plants outside Japan.

The forced opening of the country to Western trade in 1853, meant a great humiliation for the Japanese and in order to regain its prestige (honor) need to beat the West at its own game. Hence the social revolution and the importance given to economic and industrial power as well as the military is simply the Bushido spirit adapted to modern circumstances. The honor and self-respect were the primary reasons, and wealth was considered a very secondary place; but certainly, it has now become a symbol of success, which was mainly pursued recovery prestige.

Bushido means appropriate behavior for Fighter gentleman, to live according to this code, a Samurai should be courageous, honorable, motivated by a desire to do righteousness and justice, should be merciful, truthful, courteous, loyal, possessor of a large self-control and capable of self-sacrifice. The emphasis of the Bushido in the military under the bravura is inevitable and requires no further discussion. However it is narrowly linked to the virtue of honor, it is still a powerful motivating force in modern Japan. With the recent phenomenal economic development of Japan, Western may believe that the main motivation of this country is money, but wrong.

Why Japan occupies that place in the comity of nations?
Just understand his samurai spirit.

From the twelfth century the Japanese have clear destination when looking in the mirror of their culture and the samurai spirit in his ethics ... in his Bushido. "Those who cling to life die, who survived death-defying"